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[成长教育] 中考英语之介词用法

  下面与大家分享下“中考英语知识点:常见介词用法错误”
  [误] We got to the top of the mountain in daybreak.
  [正] We got to the top of the mountain at day break.
  [析] at用于具体时刻之前,如:sunrise, midday, noon, sunset, midnight, night.
  [误] Don’t sleep at daytime
  [正] Don’t sleep in daytime.
  [析] in 要用于较长的一段时间之内,如:in the morning / afternoon, 或 in the week / month / year. 或 in spring / supper /autumn / winter等等。
  [误] We visited the old man in Sunday afternoon.
  [正] We visited the old man on Sunday afternoon.
  [析] in the morning, in the afternoon 如果在这两个短语中加入任何修饰词其前面的介词都要改为on, 如:on a cold morning, on the morning of July 14th
  [误] He became a writter at his twenties
  [正] He became a writter in his twenties
  [析]这句话应译为:他在20多岁时就成了作家。在某人的一段生活时间段中要用介词in来表示,而在具体岁数时用at来表示。
  [误] He went to New York to find a job in sixteen years old.
  [正] He went to New York to find a job at sixteen.
  [析] 在具体年岁前用at, 如:at the age of 12, at your age,等等。
  [误] We went to swim in the river in a very hot day.
  [正] We went to swim in the river on a very hot day.
  [析] 具体某一天要用介词on, 又如:on New Year‘s Day
  [误] I’m looking forward to seeing you on Christmas.
  [正] I’m looking for ward to seeing you at Christmas.
  [析]在节日的当天用on,而全部节日期间用at,Christmas是圣诞节期间,一般要有两周或更长的时间。
  [误] I haven’t see you during the summer holidays.
  [正] I haven’t seen you since the beginning of the summer holidays.
  [析] during表示在某一段时间之内,所以一般不与完成时搭配,如:I visited a lot of museums during the holiday. 而for表示一段时间,可以用于完成时,如:I haven‘t see you for a long time. 而through 用来表示时间时则为“整整,全部的时间”。如:It rained through the night.而since则是表达主句动作的起始时间,一般要与完成时连用。
  [误] At entering the classroom, I heard the good news.
  [正] On entering the classroom, I heard the good news.
  [析] On 加动名词表示“一……就”。本句的译文应是:我一进入教室就听见这个好消息了。又如:on hearing… 一听见, on arrival 一到达就……(on表示动作的名词)
  [误] In the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.
  [正] At the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.
  [析] at the begining与at the end都是指某事物的开始与结束部分,均不指时间范围,而in the beginning 则是指开始一段时间。in the end=at last是指“最终,终于”之意。
  [误] Till the end of next week. I will have finished this work.
  [正] By the end of next week. I will have finished this work.
  [析] by 引起的时间状语表示了动作的截止点,其意思为“不迟于某一时刻将工作做完”,所以主句一般是完成时态。当然可以有将来时态,如:I‘ll be there by five o’clock.而till则表达其一动作一直持续到某一时刻,但句中的动词一定要用持续性动词,而瞬间的截止性动词应用其否定句式,如:I won‘t finish this work till(until) next weekend.
  [误] He came to London before last weekend.
  [正] He had come to London before last weekend.
  [正] He came to London two weeks ago.
  [析] before 一般要与完成时连用,而ago则与一般过去时连用。
  [误] I have studied English for three years gince I had come here.
  [正] I have studied English for three years since I came here.
  [析] since用来表达主句动作的开始时间,所以其引出的从句中应为过去时,而不能用完成时态
  [误] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it after two hours.
  [正] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it in two hours.
  [析]中文经常讲两小时之后来取,两天内会修好,而这个介词在英文中要用in而不要用after.其原因有二,①after 多用于过去时,如:I arrived in New York. After three days, I found a job in the bank. ② after 加时间是表达一个不确定的时间范围,如:after three days, 即三天之后的哪一天都可以。所以在许诺若干时间内会完成某事时,一定要用介词in.
  [误] Three days after he died.
  [正] After three days he died.
  [正] Three days later he died.
  [析] after 与 later都可以用来表达一段时间之后,但它们所处的位置不同,after 在时间词前,而later在时间词后。
  [误] She hid ***elf after the tree.
  [正] She hid ***elf behind the tree.
  [析] after多用来表达某动作之后,所以有的语法书中称它为动态介词,如:I run after him. After finishing my homework, I went to see a film. 而behind则多用于静态事物之后。
  [误] There is a beautiful bird on the tree.
  [正] There is a beautiful bird in the tree.
  [析] 树上长出的果实,树叶要用on, 而其他外来的人、物体均要用in the tree.
  [误] Shanghai is on the east of China.
  [正] Shanghai is in the east of China.
  [析] 在表达地理位置时有3个介词:in, on, to. in表示在某范围之内; on表示与某地区接壤;to则表示不相接。如:Japan is to the east of China.
  [误] I arrived at New York on July 2nd.
  [正] I arrived in New York on July 2nd.
  [析] at用来表达较小的地方,而in用来表达较大的地方。at常用于at the school gate, at home, at a bus stop, at the station, at the cinema, at a small village.
  [误] He lived in No. 3 Beijing Road.
  [正] He lived at No. 3 Beijing Road.
  [析] 在门牌号码前要用at, 并要注意它的惯用法:at the end of the street, at the foot of the mountain, at the top of the page.
  [误] There is a colour TV set at the corner of the hall.
  [正] There is a colour TV set in the corner of the hall.
  [析] 在屋内的角落应用in,而墙的外角用at,如:There is a tree at the corner of the street.
  [误] This weekend I’ll stay in Uncle Wang’s.
  [正] This weekend I’ll stay at Uncle Wang’s.
  [析] 要注意英文的特殊表达法,如:at a tailor’s shop (裁缝店)=at a tailor’s, at the doctor’s (去看病) at the bookseller’s (在书店) at uncle Wang’s (在王叔叔家)
  [误] Do you know there is some good news on today’s newspaper?
  [正] Do you know there is some good news in today’s newspaper?
  [析] 在报纸上的新闻要用in, 而在具体某一版上,或某一页上则要用on.
  [误] The school will begin on September 1st.
  [正] School will begin on September 1st.
  [析]这里的school应看作不可数名词泛指学校的课程,即开学之意。要注意,有些活动场所当表达正在从事该种活动时不要加冠词,如:at table (吃饭), When I came to Tom’s home, they were at table. 还有: at desk (学习),at work (工作) at school (上学), in hospital (住医院) at church 作礼拜如加上定冠词则另有他意,如:at the school 即在学校工作或办事,in the hospital 即在医院工作或去看望病人。
  [误] In my way to the station, I bought a newspaper to kill time.
  [正] On my way to the station, I bought a newspaper to kill time.
  [析]译文为:在去车站的路上我买了份报纸,为的是消磨时光“在……的路上”应用on one‘s way…。而 in the way 有挡道之意,如:Please move the chair it is in the way.
  [误] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke into.
  [正] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke in.
  [正] Look, the door is open, Maybe someone broke into the office.
  [析] in是表达一个静止状态,在与break连用时其后不加介词宾语,而into则是动态介词,与break连用时要加介词宾语。
  [误] I’ll leave Beijing to Shanghai tomorrow.
  [正] I’ll leave Beijing for Shanghai.
  [正] I’ll leave for Shanghai.
  [析] leave for 是离开某地去某处的固定搭配,不可将for改为别的介词。这样的搭配还有:start for 动身前往某处,set out for, sail for.
  [误] I’m sorry. I have to get out the bus at next stop.
  [正] I’m sorry. I have to get out of the bus at next stop.
  [析] get in, 与 get out是两个相反的词组。get in 为上车,而get out为下车,但语法家认为这里的in与out为副词,所以其后不能接名词,我们可以讲We’d better get in. 或We’d better get out. 还有一组词组有关上下车:get on/off(a train, a ship, a struck) get into/out of (a car, taxi…)
  [误] Be careful The temperature of the water is ninety degrees over zero.
  [正] Be careful. The temperature of the water is ninety degrees above zero.
  [析] over 与 above 在作为比某物高的意思时有时可以互换。但在垂直方向上的高矮时,即正上方时则要用above.而泛指上方时用over.
  [误] There is an old stone bridge above the river.
  [正] There is an old stone bridge over the river.
  [析] over还有一意为“跨越,横跨”。
  [误] The Dead Sea is under the sea level.
  [正] The Dead Sea is below the sea level.
  [析]在垂直下方要用below.也就是讲above与below互为反意词,over与under也是反意词。
  [误] There is a big tree in the front of the house.
  [正] There is a big tree in front of the house.
  [析] in front of 是在物体外部的前面,而in the front of 是在物体内部的前面,如:The driver sits in the front of the bus.
  [误] It took them two days to walk across the forest.
  [正] It took them two days to walk through the forest.
  [析] across 作为介词有两个主要意思:① 横过,如:I want to walk across the street.② 对面,如:There is a post office across the street,而through 多用于三维空间中的穿越。across则多用于平面上的横过。如:The little girl ran across the room to meet her mother.
  [误] The sun sets toward the west.
  [正] The sun sets in the west.
  [析] towards也可用作toward,它主要表达朝向某方向运动,但不一定到达,如:He ran toward(s) the mountain.而在表示方位east, west, north, south 时,其前面要用in.要注意的是这4个词可以用作副词,如:I went south. 也可用作名词,如:I went to the south.也可用作形容词,如:I went to the south part of China.
  [误] Do you have no other clothes except those?
  [正] Do you have no other clothes besides those?
  [析] beside 是“在……旁边”,如:The students stood beside their teac***.而besides是“除……之外,不仅……而且……,除了……以外还有……”,如:I studied English besides French, when I was in college. 而except 则是从同一类物体中去掉某一部分,如:I come here every day except Sunday. 而except for 是指去掉不同种类的事物,如:The room is clean except for two chairs. 而except that则要加从句。
  [误] Can I write the exam paper with ink?
  [正] Can I write the exam paper with a pen?
  [正] Can I write the exam paper in ink?
  [析] with后要加拿得起来放得下的工具,而墨水、颜料等原料则要用in.
  [误] I’m earlier today. I came here by his car.
  [正] I’m earlier today. I came here in his car.
  [析]在交通工具前加介词by,但不能再有任何指示代词或冠词,否则要改换相应的介词。by taxi=in a taxi
  by train=in a train
  by bicycle=on a bicycle
  by ship=on a ship
  by boat=in a boat
  by bus=on a bus
  by plane=on a plane
  by air 空运
  by land 陆运
  by sea 海运
  on foot on horseback
  by phone by letter by radio
  by air mail by hand
  [误] A lot of French wines are made of grape.
  [正] A lot of French wines are made from grape.
  [析] made of 是指由原材料到成品过程中原材料未发生质地的变化,而发生了某种变化则要用from,如:The desk was made of hard wood.
  [误] This is a good dictionary in English grammar.
  [正] This is a good dictionary on English grammar.
  [析]关于某方面的书籍、报告等有两个介词,其中on表示某专业用书,about则为某方面的普通读物,如:This is a book about physics.即物理科普知识。
  [误] Do you have the key of the door.
  [正] Do you have the key to the door.
  [析] key to the door门的钥匙。相同用法还有answer to the question, entrance to the highway, danger to health.千万不要用of.
  [误] Today a lot of Chinese people have interest of collecting stamps.
  [正] Today a lot of Chinese people have interest in collecting stamps.
  [析] have interest in是在某方面有兴趣。
  [误] I didn’t do my homework, so the teacher was angry to me.
  [正] I didn’t do my homework, so the teacher was angry with me.
  [析] be angry with其后接人,而be angry at其后接事。如:He was angry at what she said.
  [误] He was good for skating.
  [正] He was good at skating.
  [析] be good at 为“擅长某事”,而be good for somebody为对某人很好。
  [误] It was good to you to help my little boy.
  [正] It was good of you to help my little boy.
  [析] 这句话应译为:你真太好了,帮助了我的小孩。而be good to somebody 是对某人态度好。如:Her mother is good to everyone.
  [误] My parents were very pleased at me.
  [正] My parents were very pleased with me.
  [正] My parents were very pleased at my studying.
  [析] be pleased with后加somebody, 而be pleased at后加something.
  [误] He is agree with me.
  [正] He agrees with me.
  [误] He againsts me.
  [正] He is against me.
  [析]同意agree为动词,而反对against则为介词。在使用中一定要注意。
  [误] I haven’t heard letters from him.
  [正] I haven’t heard from him.
  [析] hear from 即为:从某人处得到信件。不要再加letter了。
  [误] Teacher. May I call at you this weekend?
  [正] Teacher. May I call on you this weekend?
  [析] 作为“拜访”讲call at其后接地点,如:May I call at your home this weekend?而call on其后接人。
  [误] Do you know the girl on white?
  [正] Do you know the girl in white?
  [析] in white为穿一身白。与in有关的词组有:in bed(睡觉),in hospital(住院),in a hurry(匆匆忙忙),in danger(危险中),in joy (高兴),in good health(身体好),in love(恋爱),in trouble(困境),与之相反的是out of ,如:out of trouble (摆脱困境),out of date(过时了), out of order(出故障)
  [误] He looked at me at surprise.
  [正] He looked at me in surprise.
  [析] surprise的用法一般有三种。①用于句首,To one’s surprise, 如:To my surprise he succeeded. ② be surprised at, 如:I was surprised at the news. ③用于句尾in surprise.
  [误] She didn’t come to school because of she was ill.
  [正] She didn’t come to school because she was ill.
  [析] because of 后接名词,如:The game was put off because of the rain.
  更多知识点欢迎关注北京新东方中学全科教育的中考英语寒假课程,新东方中学教师独特的教学方式,授人予渔的学习方法,帮学员扫清学习障碍。享受独到的中学课程服务体系。严格的考勤管理。更多的增值服务等待学员及家长来亲身体验。


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